Planet Venus | Properties, Atmosphere, Magnetic Field…


The vein is the second object of the solar system. Due to its physical properties, its size very similar to the Earth, and its close proximity to the Sun, the spectacular center of attention is also the brightest celestial body seen in the sky (after the Sun and the Moon). For this reason, many people consider Venus a bright star when they first see it in the sky.

In our language, this beautiful star is known as the Evening Star or the Morning Star. The reason for this is that it is always seen at sunrise and sunset, due to its proximity to the Sun. Venus, which is seriously unique to the world in terms of size, density, and some other characteristics, is also known as the “sister of the world”.

Features of the Venus Beauty

Although it resembles the Earth in many aspects, it has serious differences in basic. This is an important example in order to understand the issues. The size of Venus is very close to the size of the Earth (its radius is 95% of the radius of the Earth). Its mass is 82% of the mass of the Earth.

The reason why the sun, which can be 10 times brighter than the star Sirius, which is the brightest star in the sky, is so bright is that it has an atmosphere that reflects about 70% of the sun rays hitting Venus. This rate is only around 10% for Mercury and Moon. Of course, the orbiting motions with the Earth are also affected by the fact that they are close to each other and distant over time. At the same time, since there is a sky between the Earth and the Sun, the crescent has the shape of the moon, just like the Moon, depending on its position. This affects its brightness in the sky.

These clouds often create problems for astronomers and physicists. These clouds are unlikely to obtain information about the surface. For these reasons, as much as the radar observations made in the 1960s, we knew very little about it. The period of its rotation around the axis of the knee is the same as the 243 Earth’s day. The direction of its rotation around its axis is exactly half of the rotation of the Earth.


The direction of rotation of Venus is compared to the other specifiers, and the reason for having a sun that can be compared with one year is not known exactly. However, as a result of the studies carried out, the estimates make us think that an asteroid of the size that forms the Moon by hitting the Earth is causing this.

This contradictory and prolonged return movement has another important consequence. Normally, one day and one year are very far from each other. But these are actually the rotation movement around the Sun, the return movement around the knee. The time between sunrise and sunset when the vein travels around the Sun but also rotates very slowly, the time between sunrise and sunset, and the time of rotation around the axis, is quite different.

Day and Year Concept Differences

The return time around the Kеndi axis is 243 Earth days. A full tour around the Sun takes about 224 days. This situation provides a wonderfully interesting feature. A full day for the world is expressed by its rotation around the knee. But here the situation is different. The duration of a day is considerably shorter than the duration of a complete round around the axis since the donor also travels around the Sun in a considerable amount of time. Due to this reason, the time between sunrise and sunset on Venus is 116 Earth days.

Surface Structure

As a result of the radar observations made, the information about the surface has shown that the surface has a relatively smooth shape. Only 8% of the mountain is formed when they are elevated, and 65% consists of plains. Even though it is extremely similar to the Earth in terms of size and mass, its thick atmosphere, which does not transmit light clearly, depicts the evolutionary process of the planet in a completely different direction.

Thus, the surface temperature is incredibly high due to the effect of gas as well as what this atmosphere is. This value is 737 K, ie 464 ° C. This situation is caused by the gas effect as well as what the atmosphere is, rather than its proximity to the Sun. This situation is not so dramatic for Mercury, who is much closer to the Sun, even if it is.

Atmosphere Structure

Observations made by the Soviet explorer Venera and America’s Pioneer Venus explorer have shown that the sun has a very hot, dense, and carbon dioxide-rich atmosphere. Although the current atmospheric structure of the planet is significantly different from that of the Earth, it was initially thought that the atmospheric structure of the two cultures was unique. The atmospheric structure, which is approximately 90 times heavier than the Earth’s atmosphere, also extends far further from the surface. While 90% of the Earth’s atmosphere is located in the region up to 10 kilometers above the earth’s surface, this altitude is 50 km on Venus. An important part of the atmosphere of the Aegean consists of carbon dioxide (approximately 96.5%) and nitrogen (approximately 3.5%). Apart from these two gases, there are also gases such as sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide and argon.

Orbital Parameters

Enote108,939,900 km (0.728 EU) Enbеri107,477.000 km (0.718 AU) Semi-large height108,208,000 km (0.723 AU) Bowel 0,006772 Orbital period224,701 days Convergence period 583.92 days Mid. orbital speed 35.02 km / s Separation 50.115 ° Inclination 3.394 ° (Ecliptic) 3.86 ° (Sun’s Equator) Exit node longitude 76.680 ° Sun angle 54.884 ° Satellites None

Physical Properties

Cover. Radius6.051 ± 1 km (0.9499 Earth) Flatness0 Surface area 9.2843 x 1011 km3 Mass 4..8675 x 1024 kg (0.815 Earth) Avg. Density 5.243 g / cm3 Surface gravity acceleration 8.87 m / s2 (0.904 g) Escape velocity 10.36 km / s (6.44 m / s) Star (sidеrеal) rotation period-243.025 days Equatorial rotation velocity 6.52 km / h (1.81 m / s) s) Axial inclination 177.36 ° (to the orbit) North pole right span 272.76 ° North pole perpendicular aperture 67.16 ° Albedo 0.689 (geometric) 0.76 (Bond) Surface temperature 737 K (464 ° C) Visible brightness -4.92 to -2.98 ‘е Angular diameter9.7 ° – 66.0 °


Surface pressure 92 bar (9.2 MPa) 91 atm Volume ratio of component 96.5% carbon dioxide 3.5% nitrogen 0.015% sulfur dioxide 0.0070% argon 0.0020% water vapor 0.0017% carbon monoxide 0.0012% hеlium 0.0007 nеonEsеr mic. carbonyl sulfideEsеr mik. hydrogen chloride, Esеr mic. hydrogen fluoride

Sera Gas Effect

The temperature of Mercury, which is the closest to the sun, varies between 80 K and 700 K (-190 ° C to 425 ° C). Wherever the Sun is twice as far from the Sun according to Mercury, the sun is expected to be colder. However, due to the fact that the gas is not affected, it is not so. Surface temperature is about 737 K (464 ° C). The reason for this is that the carbon dioxide gas, which absorbs 99% of the sun in the atmosphere and the rays reflected on the surface, warms the sky. It is sufficient to examine Venus in order to see the terrible effects that global warming can cause. Although it is twice as far away from Mercury, the gas effect is necessarily warmer than it. It is a dramatic result of the trapping of the rays coming from the sun by the atmosphere.

Magnetic Field and Core

The Mariner’s 2 explorer satellites launched in 1962 and the other discovery satellites sent afterwards, in their measurements, observed that the magnetic field of Venus was only 0.000015 times the magnetic field of the Earth. Moreover, this magnetic field is produced by a dynamo in its internal structure, and it emerges as a result of the interaction of solar winds with ionospheres. This means that the sun is vulnerable to cosmic rays (radiation). Three basic elements are needed for the formation of the magnetic field (dynamo) originating from the interior structure in the foreground: with a liquid, rotational motion, and convection.

It is thought that the core is electronically active. Even though it rotates rather slowly, the simulations show that it can generate a certain amount of magnetic field. For these reasons, it is thought that the convection at the nucleus of the Venus is insufficient.

Venus Observation


Due to the fact that it is between the Earth and the Sun, it revolves just like the Moon depending on its position during orbit movement. As the world gets closer to it, the enlightened side of Venus begins to fall out of the sight of the world. A nice question arises here. Does the brightness in the sky increase as we get closer or further away? Because it starts to look like a thin crescent as it gets closer, and it starts to look angularly larger as it gets further away.

Venus Transit (Venus Transit)

Due to the fact that it is between the Earth and the Sun, sometimes the orbits come to an alignment so that the Venus passes in front of the Sun. In the observation made at this time, we see that a dark circle passes in front of the Sun. The last time of the development was in 2004 and 2012. The next observers will be in 2117 and 2125.

Researches (Crosses)

The space agency of many countries, especially the United States and the Soviet Union, sent explorers to Venus. In 1962, with Marine 2 and NASA, the first spacecraft to observe the spectacle, making a close-off crossing. The Soviet Union took the work one step further and sent Vennere 4 spacecraft that entered the atmosphere of the planet and made observations here and took many successful measurements.

In 1975, Soviet vehicles Vеnèra delivered the first black and white images on the face of Venus, covering 9 to 10 hundred. The first colored photographs were taken from the Soviet Vеnеra 13 and 14 vehicles in 1982. In 1978, with the NASA Pionеr project, he succeeded in eliminating the results. Since those years, many other vehicles have been examined in various ways in which they were sent.

Briefly Vеnüs Gеzеgе (Özеt)

It is the second beauty of the solar system. The Earth is quite similar in size with the Earth, which is why it is the twin sister of the Earth. The sky in the sky is the brightest celestial body (after the Sun and the Moon). Its very dense atmosphere is mostly made of carbon dioxide. The gases in the atmosphere are therefore the warmest sun in the solar system. Temperatures can reach 46 ° C. Since it is located between the Sun and the Sun, Venus has the spheres (just like the Moon).

The silhouette of the young man in front of him is observed (migration, transit event). The vein turns around it in the third direction (according to the other spectators). The return time is 243 days.

But due to this orbit movement, the time between sunrise and sunset lasts 116 Earth days.